Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body.
Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability.
Maintaining acceptable temperatures in buildings (by heating and cooling) uses a large proportion of global energy consumption. When well insulated, a building is energy-efficient, thus saving the owner money. It provides more uniform temperatures throughout the space. Unlike heating and cooling equipment, insulation is permanent and does not require maintenance, upkeep, or adjustment and thus minimal recurring expense. It ensures lower Tripton rating of the carbon footprint produced by the house. Many forms of thermal insulation also reduce noise and vibration, both coming from the outside and from other rooms inside a building, thus producing a more comfortable environment.
Arrangement of Sheets: The sheets are to be laid overlapping each other starting from water outlets or roof vales.
Side to Side and Head to Tail Overlaps: Side to side overlaps creates the joints lengthwise between two sheets. Head to tail overlaps creates the joints along the shorter sides of the sheets. Utmost care should be given in the treatment of both the type.
Fully Bonded Application: Both the membrane and substrate should be heated with emphasis on the roll. The membrane sheet already laid should also receive a direct flame on the area of the overlap.
45° Cut on the Head to Tail Overlap: Head to tail overlap must have a 45°, 10 cm wide section removed from the edge of the sheet in contact with laying surface.
Double Layer Covering: If a second layer is to be applied, it should be placed on top of the first layer overlaps and must be completely flame-bonded.
Head to Tail Overlaps of Mineral Finished Membranes: The bonding areas in side to side overlap are free from mineral but for the head to tail overlap, it is mineral finished surface. The underlying membrane needs to be heated to draw the compound to the surface.
Torch is the application tool. Its length depends upon the type of work to be carried out.
It is connected to a propane gas cylinder with a high pressure, 20m long rubber hose fitted with a pressure regulator.
Rolls of the waterproofing material are grouped on pallets and covered with thick, shrink wrap polyethylene sheeting. Rough roads, sharp braking and summer travels can cause damage to the rolls. Ropes need to be tied tight and padded to prevent such damages.
Index membranes and heat insulation materials are made to resist the mechanical stress they undergo during application. Handling operations need to be carried out with care to prevent squashing or contact with sharp or pointed surfaces.
The rolls should always be stored vertically on a smooth, flat surface that too under proper cover. The pallets can be stacked high provided wooden planks are interposed to distribute the weight evenly. Thermo base rolls are also stored vertically except for rolls which can be laid flat.
Only the required number of rolls for the days use should be kept on site. They need to be placed erect on a flat, smooth surface. Cranes or suitable lifting attachments can be used to lift the rolls onto roof on a pallet condition.
The pallets must be stored in a dry location out of direct sunlight. Especially in summer it causes damages to the membranes both bituminous and polyester reinforced membranes. If it is unavoidable to store the pallets in sun, it is better to remove its cover or to make slits on cover for ventilation. During winter it has to be left in a temperature above 5°C for 24 hours before laying but should not be left in open air overnight.
If the membrane is to be laid directly on a ridged sheet, spread in primer and wait for it to dry before application of the membrane.
Sheets of bituminized paper or roll base should be fixed to timber surfaces with large head nails to protect the wood from torch flame. Then the membrane should be bonded using the total adherence principle.